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Research Proposal for 2005

田中耕司  Prof. TANAKA Koji  
水野広祐  Prof. Dr. MIZUNO Kosuke
岡本正明  Ass. Prof. OKAMOTO Masaaki    
松井和久  MATSUI Kazuhisa, M.of Econ.
市川昌広  Dr. ICHIKAWA Masahiro
赤嶺淳    AKAMINE Jun, Ph.D.
長津一史  NAGATSU Kazufumi, Ph.D.
浜元聡子  HAMAMOTO Satoko, Ph.D.
島上宗子  SHIMAGAMI Motoko, M.of Hum&Environ
(as of May 2005)

CSEAS/Kyoto University

"30 Years Later" of Pioneer Settlers in Kabupaten Luwu Utara, South Sulawesi: Process of Their Adaptation to the Age of Decentralization

1) To identify changes in administrative structures at the levels of Kabupaten, Kecamatan and Desa during the last decade.
2) To identify stakeholders and beneficiaries in the development of land/resource use and management, in particular, oil-palm plantation, commercial crop cultivation, aquaculture and "forest area" management.
3) To explore the legal background of land/resource management and the settlers recognition.
4) To explore the social changes in the selected "former" pioneer settlements: ethnic interaction, leadership, and household economy.

Dynamic changes in land use and resource management were observed in frontier regions in Kabupaten Luwu, where a number of government-supported transmigration programs were implemented and spontaneous migrants settled in 1970s and 1980s. The new settlers, both government-supported and spontaneous, exploited land and natural resources for sustaining their livelihood, while the central and local governments also implemented various regional development programs and projects in that period.
Based on my research conducted in early 1980s to early 1990s, this study tries to observe their "after" in order to understand the role of the settlers in the formation of new political and economic situations in local politics and administration after the decentralization. The study is expected to contribute to the understanding of local mechanism in which local resource is exploited, managed, and divided.

Research Sites:
Kecamatan Wotu and Malili, Kabupaten Luwu Utara.

Tentative Schedule:

CSEAS/Kyoto University

Social and Economic Study on People’s Welfare, Organizations and Institutions in South Sulawesi

Research Duration:
August 8 2005 to August 20 2003

Research Subject:
     Formal institutional changes, such as improvement of banking system and recognizing the right to organize at the national level, as well as enhencement of Regency Government’s authority, and replacement of LMD with BPD at local level under the process of decentralization and democratization in Indonesia, are expected to be supported by people’s positive response to increase production, alleviate the poverty, and improve the people’s welfare.

     This study will examine people’s response to the social changes including the institutional changes of late, and attempt to understand the process of institutional change that could lead to the improvement of people’s welfare.

     As the response of the people, this study will examine the accumulation of capital, improvement of human capital, and improvement of social capital such as extending the business network, enhencement of knowledge and skill to manage the organization and to minimize the transaction cost ect. This study will shed light on the people’s organizations, such as village government and production and trade organization, that have been establised as people’s response to the formal institutional changes.

     Informal institutions, such as household and community, or farmer’ groups at the rice field or forestry, and small businesses have supported the people’s welfare, in addition to the formal Government or Companies’ institutions. Informal institutional changes will be studied because informal instituitional changes brought about by people can compliment the formal institutions so that formal institutional changes could lead to the increase of the productions, and also support the sustainability of people’s organizations to improve the people’s welfare.

1) Library research on formal and informal institutins.
2) Community study on the people’s welfare, people’s organizations, and formal and informal institutions using

3) Interview with local Government institutions officers including Village Administrative officers etc.
4) Unstructured interview with the local people, especially people who are managing the people’s organization.
    Interviews with local people on pruduction, marketing and also interview with managers of forests 

CSEAS/Kyoto University

Entrenched Local Social Power in the Mandar Province, Indonesia: Recalcitrant Social Structure and the Changing Role of the State

    The Mandarese people finally got their own province, the West Sulawesi province separated from the South Sulawesi province in 2004. The Mandarese area which is comprised of the five districts (Polmas, Mamasa, Majene, Mamuju and Mamuju Utara) had been far less developed than other parts of the South Sulawesi province and that was one of the strongest motivations for the Mandarese to have their own province. As the cases of newly established provinces show, this new province could trigger a new pattern of politics and state-society relation in the Mandar area. Actually there is almost no researches done on the Mandar area from the political aspect. That is why it is strongly needed to make a research on the local politics in the Mandar area.

    The central question of my study is about the changing relationship of state and society in the new province. And this question can be divided into two parts according to the administrative level. One will focus on the provincial level and try to show who actually can make the most of the new province and the related capital and how they try to entrench themselves economically and politically at the provincial level and down to the district level. This research will include a rather comprehensive collection of the data on the provincial and district heads and local parliamentarians. (With the help of Puskit, UNHAS, a rather comprehensive data on the local parliamentarians in the Mandar area is now available.)

    The other will focus on the village level with a comparative perspective. I will choose one village in the Mamuju district and the other one in Mamasa district and try to figure out the historical genealogy of village heads and influential persons (tokoh masyarakat) in these villages since early 20th century. If possible, the changing pattern of land holding and the impact of the introduction of plantation (of oil palm) and HPH will also be researched. To understand the unique characteristics of politics and state-society relation in the Mandarese area, I will pay academic attention to the neighboring Torajan villages by getting myself involved in the socio-economic research headed by Prof. Mizuno and Bapak Dias.

    The most probable assumption is that the recalcitrant and entrenched local social power-holders finely defy the changing state-society relationship brought about by the democratization and decentralization and also by the establishment of the new province. They still keep capturing the local state economic and political resources rather dominantly. But a question still remains; is it possible to discern a changing pattern of this capturing that could induce the horizontal unity?

MATSUI Kazuhisa
Senior Research Fellow, Area Studies Center,
Institute of Developing Economies (IDE), JETRO

Seasonal migration on the shore of Langkai Island: Fishing Boats from Kab. Takalar

Decentralization and its impact on local resource management in Sulawesi: insiders and outsiders in remote islands of the Spermonde Archipelago

Research Topics:
1) Institutional setting and introduction process of government policies or laws/regulations on local resource    
    management after the introduction of decentralization
2) Reactions from local peoples to the decentralization and the related policies and outsiders' interventions
    from the viewpoint of local resource management
3) Generalization and specification of the finding results from the field survey on local resource management
    between Sulawesi and other developing areas

Background and Objectives:
    This study will focus on the interaction between outsiders (government and economic actors from outside) and insiders (peoples) on local resource management as maritime resources or land use, and those changes before and after introducing decentralization.

    Generally, issues on local resource management tend to be simplified as conflict between nation and peoples, between modernization and tradition, or between economic growth and environmental protection. However, as in the case of communal land ownership and utilization as intermediate system between nation and peoples in Japan (as the Iriai) and other countries, the local resource had been managed by collective indigenous knowledge and wisdom coming from each local situation.

    We need to check whether such indigenous knowledge and wisdom still functioned or not and why. The existence may be positively or negatively influenced by entering of outside factors such as government policies, commercialization, new technologies and information. Especially, in this context, decentralization launched since 2001 might give some important impacts on local resource management. Also, historical experiences as economic crisis with the rupiah depreciation for increasing of earning by export products might make local socio-economic conditions big influences.

    In Spermonde archipelago, there are issues on local resource management as a serious dilemma between environmental protection of the coral reef and peoples' income generation and local economic development. Local government of the Pangkep regency tries to set several ordinances on this issue to realize balanced local economic development in the backward remote islands area. However, it is very difficult for local government to overcome such very serious issue only by several ordinances. We need to understand what happens at the field in remote islands and similarities and differences (misunderstandings) of logics between outsiders and insiders.

     In order to approach this issue, with close collaboration with the Unhas team and our Japanese members, we need to conduct a comprehensive field survey in several selected islands in Pangkep regency in August 2005.

Planned Research Activities in 2005:
1) Collection and analysis of laws/regulations on environmental resource management at national, provincial,
    local and village level (continued since 2004)
2) Interviews to local government officials on local resource management
3) Interviews to village peoples and outsiders (as traders or peoples coming from outside areas) on local  
    resource management and their reactions to the government policies
4) Analysis of these interviews results on " Synchronization and misunderstandings between government
    policies and peoples' perspective on local resource management " Similarities and differences of perception 
    between outsiders (as traders or farmers/fishermen from outside areas) and insiders, related to insider's
    recognition on 'outsiders' " Changes of these perceptions before and after introducing decentralization

Planned Research Areas in 2005:
Selected several islands in the Spermonde Archipelago, Pangkep Regency

Planned Schedule in August 2005 (tentative):




Fiber Boat Builder on Barrang Caddi Island.

1) 地方分権化導入後の地域資源管理に関する政策や法令の策定・実施過程
2) 地域資源管理の視点から見た、地方分権化およびその関連政策や(政府を含む)アウトサイダーの介入に対する地域住民の反応
3) 他の開発途上地域との比較に基づくスラウェシでのフィールド調査結果の一般性と特殊性の把握


相手機関であるハサヌディン大学の関係者との議論、およびスプルモンデ諸島の大半を管轄するパンケップ県政府へのインタビューなどの後、8月24〜27日に浜元さんと一緒にスプルモンデ諸島に属する9つの島を訪問し、行政官や住民から聞き取りを行った。8月29日には、地域開発戦略に関して南スラウェシ州政府において講演・意見交換を行い、州の各局長クラスが参加した。今回の出張のメイン・イベントとして、8月30日に相手機関であるハサヌディン大学チームメンバーと一緒に中間報告ワークショップを全日開催し、"Dampak Desentralisasi terhadap Wilayah Kepulauan: Beberapa Viewpoints sebagai Pendahuluan" (島嶼部地域への地方分権化の影響:序論としてのいくつかの視点)と題した発表を行った。

Setting Free the sea turtle.


Research Institute for Humanity and Nature

Uses and trading of natural resources by the Bugis of the Mahakam River
Researcher Name:

I conducted research in the middle reaches of the Mahakam River (between Melak and Lg. Bangun) for 1 month on January and February, 2005. I found several evidences on the Bugis movements. They have settled in villages of indigenous people (mainly the Bahau) after 1970s when the operation of commercial logging become active. I observed they , today, occupied 10% or more of the total population of the villages. They engaged in commercial logging (as employee of logging company), management of small shops in village, trading of forest products and agricultural crops. Gaining foothold in Samarinda and the Muslim villages in the Lake area, they have approached to the middle reaches of the Mahakam. Their movements affected natural resources uses by the indigenous people there.

Research proposed for 20005
I conduct research on uses and trading of natural resource by the Bugis, considering their movements between South Sulawesi - Samarinda - Lake area - the middle reaches. Main research area is Bugis villages in the Lake area and also in the Makassar Strait. Items for interview and observation are:
- Background of their migration from South Sulawesi, and relations with their homeland
- Their economic activities and natural resources uses
- How they consider the dynamics of natural resources in the middle reaches of Mahakam river where way of their management have changed under decentralization policy.
- In the Makassar Strait, I will focus on Iron wood trading from Kalimantan (esp. Mahakam basin) to Sulawesi. It will be a good material to understand Bugis movement and relationship between 2 islands.
The fieldwork will be conducted for one month in August, 2005.


Nagoya City University

Coastal Resource Management under the Global Environmentalism in the Spermonde Archipelago

distractive fishing, open access, generating the Commons, benthos resource exploitation system

Research agenda:
3 August 2005 to 15 August, the Spermonde Archipelago

1. Research on changing from the open access type to the community based coastal resource management in the Spermonde Archipelago
2. Research on historical development on the benthos resource exploitation system in Makassar region, such as trepang, and lolak.

I am very much interested in Pak Jompa's report dated on April 12, 2005. In his report, I found most interesting the case that some environmental NGOs and the local communities have interacted to generate a community based resource management.

I like to review the NGO's coastal resource management projects in the Spermonde Archipelago in the past and see how their activities influenced the local behaviour. To my understanding, there are more cases of the open access type fisheries rather than the well-managed fisheries in the Spermonde waters. If so, the real situation of resource exploitation should be first surveyed and the shifting process from the open access to locally managed system changes should be descrived.

Developments on the benthos resources exploitation such as trepang and lolak in Makassar is my second interest. I like to interview some traders and processors of these commodities as well as the fishermen. Especially, I like to collect stories of trans border fishing over Australian waters.




1. スペルモンデ諸島内におけるオープンアクセスからコミュニティ主体の資源管理慣行へ推移しつつある過程の調査。
2. マカッサル周辺地域・海域における、ナマコやサラサバテイなどの定着性資源利用の史的変遷の調査。


NAGATSU Kazufumi
CSEAS, Kyoto University

Socio-economic History of Trans-regional Movements of the Sulawesi Bajau: Changes of Resource Exploitation, Social Network, and Maritime Zone.

Tentative Research Plan:
1 to 10 October 2005, the Spermonde Archipelago
1 December 2005 to 10 January 2006, Gorontalo and/or Manado

1. Extensive Research on the long-term history of the Bajau migration around Sulawesi, through the surveys of their languages, material cultures, origin myths, social networks and ethnic relations.
2. Intensive Research on the change and continuity of patterns of the recent Bajau movements, seasonally, temporary or migratory, in search for marine resource, better political environment, religious knowledge, or the other kinds of rezeki. This research is supposedly concerned with the change and continuity from the New Order through the Regional Autonomy era.

The Bajau, or Sama, a maritime population are dispersed widely in the maritime areas that today lie along the borders of the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. I have conducted basic and extensive research on the distribution of the Bajau villages, their vocabulary, origin myths, and social networks since the mid 1990s together with Mr. Akamine. This research is aimed at reconstructing the long-term historical process of their migration in the Wallcean maritime world, focusing on their ecological as well as politico-social adaptation. In this Sulawesi project, I am planning firstly to continue this basic research along the Makassar straits and Tomini bay.

Secondly, I would like to carry out an intensive research in Goronralo and/or Manado on the recent population movements of the Bajau, which have been undertaken for the purposes of fishing, trading, migrating, local pilgrimage, or searching for political or business patrons. The research would deal with 1) the geographical spheres of the movements, 2)the patterns of the movement according to its purpose or cause, and 3) the intra-ethnic as well as inter-ethnic networks on which the movements are based. In addition, the research would necessarily pay an attention to changes and continuities of the said three topics before and after the Regional Autonomy, which are supposedly interlinked with the recent political, economic situations; e.g. reorganization of regional administrative structures, revision of the former 'suku terasing' or isolated society policies (for the Bajau), enclosure of region's natural resources, expansion of marine product business of private companies, etc.

This research would hopefully contribute to understand the dynamics of organizing and reorganizing process of local maritime zones around Sulawesi and beyond by tracing the long-term as well as recent histories of the Bajau movements, and by situating them in the wider social contexts as well as ecological milieus of Sulawesi.

CSEAS/Kyoto University

"Socio-economic dynamics among southern part of Spermonde Archipelago"

Consolidation of Kecamatan, transmigration, Samarinda, interface, maritime resource management

Research Trip Period / Place / Purpose:
a) 1 August 2005 - 30 September 2005 / Southern part of Spermonde Archipelago
- To collect information on consolidation of new county (kecamatan) among Spermonde
- Archipelago. To observe the process through local dynamics of subsistence and social life.

b) 1 October 2005 - 30 October 2005 / Samarinda, East Kalimantan
To observe socio-economic interface between South Sulawesi-origin migrants' community in Samarinda and their homeland in Spermonde Archipelago.

Main Purpose
    My main academic concern will be focused on consolidation of a couple of Kelurahan and establishment of new Kecamatan in progress among Spermonde Archipelago. The dynamics will be observed through three viewpoints as follows; population mobility, management of natural maritime resources and local autonomy. At this moment, the likelihood of this consolidation is still contingent. Its whole process, however, must be interesting and noteworthy dynamics in regional autonomy era whether the scheme is realised or not. Comparative remote islands of Kelurahan Barrang Caddi seem to be aggressive in discussion. On the other hand, rather rich and content with the present situation island as Barrang Lompo is less interested in the consolidation. Yet, growing interests and expectancy for the new Kecamatan, which will be consisted by insular part only, of the rest of islands, are really remarkable movement. For their motivation have been stemming from management for their own autonomy of maritime resources.

    In my first stage of research trip, I would like to concentrate on the topic mentioned above. In the second stage, research location will be moved to Samarinda, East Kalimantan in order to get general information on interface between the both sides of the Makassar Straits. Human and commodity dynamics in the age of Regional Autonomy will be surveyed along the coastal area of Samarinda and its vicinities. Especially, fishery and forest products for shipbuilding are highly studied considering the natural resource management policy of East Kalimantan.

Based on my previous research results in 2004, several islands are to be selected as fixed points. The islands are; five islands of Kecamatan Ujung Tanah (Barrang Lompo, Barrang Caddi, Kodinggarreng, Langkai and Lanjutkan) and three islands from Kabupaten Pangkajene dan Kepulaun (Balang Lompo, Karangrang and Podang-Podang). General information on socio-cultural issues are surveyed under mutual cooperation of local population and collaborators from UNHAS. I would like to find and meet some collaborators in UNHAS in order to help me with my field research in August.

    At this moment, unfortunately, "Spermonde Team" in Japanese side has not discussed probability of cooperative research yet. Holding a section meeting as soon as possible is the emergent issue for the team. And also, information exchange inside the team is absolutely necessary before we set about conducting personal research project.



研究協力者・松井和久と、現地の調査協力者とで、マカッサル市ウジュンタナ郡の島嶼部地域の概観調査をおこなった。木造高速ボート、ジョロロを利用して、全7島を回り、それぞれの島で人口、世帯数などの基本情報の収集をおこなった。また、この地域で、現在、進行中の島嶼部だけの新郡設立(ウジュンタナ郡からの分離独立)をめぐる動向を、地方分権の中に位置づけることができるかどうかの聞き取り、観察などもおこなった。これらの情報は、遅沢・松井・浜元・Aziz Salamによるスプルモンデ諸島のインベントリー作成の材料となる。
ハサヌディン大学と共催のスラウェシ科研・ワークショップで口頭発表:"An Autonomous Otonomi Daerah among Southern Part of the Spermonde Archipelago?: An Anthroplogical Anlysis on the Establishment of New Kecamatan and Consolidation of inter-island"


Community-based Research and Action for Local Governance / いりあい・よりあい・まなびあいネットワーク

Material Basis of Village Autonomy: Survey on Livelihood and Socio-economic Relations in Nanggala Village, Tana Toraja District

1) To collect primary data and information on livelihood and socio-economic conditions/relations of villagers.
2) To identify kinds of resources that a villager manages (or has ever managed) for living either individually or
  collectively, and its unit and system of resource manangement.
3) To investigate historical change of village unit and structure.
4) To collect information on the legal and policy frameworks of village autonomy and community-based
     resource menagement at both national and local levels.

   "The centralized and authoriarian government had forced to introduce standardized village administration and development programs nationwide by neglecting customary rights and system that each village has nurtured for generations. Consequently, villagers' ability of managing themselves and their resources has been weekened, which, as a result, has caused serious problems, such as over-exploitation and depletion of natural resources. In order to solve these problems, it is urgent and inevitable to acknowledge the rights of customary communities and revitalize their indigenous and sustainable practices of governing the resources."

   The above-mentioned is a very popular logic which has been commonly found in the documents of either governments, international agencies, or NGOs of late years. The recent move towards revitalization of adat (local custom) in Indonesia is also based on such logic. Since the enactment of the Law No. 22/1999 on Regional Governance, "customary community (masyarakat adat)" has become an important political keyword, which is often used with little understanding and consensus on its meaning and substance, and as a result tends to mystify the complex reality of the villages.

    Recent expericence of revitalization of adat in Tana Toraja District presents a very interesting case to examine. Based on the District Regulations enacted in 2001 and 2002, villages in Tana Toraja experienced large-scale reorganization. Villages, which had been standardized as Desa during the Suharto Era, were reorganized into Lembang, a so-called "traditional" form of village based on "adat" in Tana Toraja. 290 Desa/Kelurahan were reorganized into 141 Lembang/Kelurahan. Revitalization of Lembang was highly appreciated by many parties, including international agencies, government, and NGOs, as if it were a "panacea" for the problems faced by Torajan people. Yet in 2004, these Lembang/Kelurahan were reorganized again by District Regulation, and the number of Lembang/Kelurahan has multiplied again to 268.

    What can we read from this experience of Tana Toraja? From my research experience in Toraja (2002), I infer that the recent frequent village reorganization indicates that adat has become a political commodity of local politics, rather than an effective tool or media for strengthening village autonomy as it is claimed. In other words, it might rather show the relative weekness (declining importance?) of adat in daily lives of the villagers. If it is so, what is an effective form of village autonomy in Tana Toraja, and what is the role of adat in the present and future Toraja?

    Above-mentioned background and questions in mind, this research will focus more on the material aspect --- rather than a cultural, "traditional", and therefore often mystified and politicized root --- of village autonomy. By examining the livelihood and socio-economic conditions/relations of villagers, it is expected to reexamine the meaning of adat for the ordinary villagers (not only for the leaders and political elites), and to contribute socio-economic data and materials for exploring an effective form of village autonomy based on the reality of a village.

* Quesionnare survey on socio-economic contidion/relation of household (Questionnaire will be made in discussion
 and cooperation with UNHAS members.)
* Field observation
* Interviews and discussion with some key-persons
* Study on secondary materials (related statistics, regulations, ethnographies, etc.)

Research Sites:
* Lembang Nanggala (as of 2002), Kecamatan Tondon Nanggala, Kabupaten Tana Toraja
* Some other Lembang in Tana Toraja for comparison.
* Some other villages in upland Central Sulawesi for comparison (if possible)

Tentative Schedule in FY2005:
May: Reference survey and identification of questionnaire items
June: Finalization of draft of questionnaire
July: Pre-test and finalization of questionnaire (If possible, make a short visit to Toraja)
August: Field survey in Tana Toraja (2 weeks?)

* Exact schedule of field survey has not been decided yet (Need further coordination and consultation).
** Another field survey (3-4 weeks?) might be conducted before the end of FY2005.